New Study Shows that Spirulina Protects Against Non-alcoholic Liver Cell Inflammation
Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of spirulina on rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear, but accumulating data suggest oxidative stress and the relationship between inflammation and immunity plays a crucial role. The aim of this study is to investigate the spirulina, which is a blue-green algae rich in proteins and other nutritional elements, and its component-phycocyanin effect on a rat model of NASH. NASH model rats were established by feeding male Wistar rats with choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHF) and intermittent hypoxemia by sodium nitrite challenge after 5 weeks of CDHF. After experimental period of 10 weeks, blood and liver were collected to determine oxidative stress injuries and efficacies of spirulina or phycocyanin on NASH model rats. In the NASH model rats, increase in plasma liver enzymes and liver fibrosis, increases in productions of reactive oxygen species from liver mitochondria and from leukocytes, the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, and the change in the lymphocyte surface antigen ratio (CD4(+)/CD8(+)) were observed. The spirulina and phycocyanin administration significantly abated these changes. The spirulina or phycocyanin administration to model rats of NASH might lessen the inflammatory response through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, breaking the crosstalk between oxidative stress and inflammation, and effectively inhibit NASH progression.
J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2012 Nov;51(3):227-34. doi: 10.3164jcbn.12-18. Epub 2012 Oct 12.
OCT 31, 2012
Phycocyanin from Spiruliina Shown to Have Similar Effect to Bilirubin (a well-known antioxidant) in Kidney Cell Protection
Phycocyanin and Phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis Protect against Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress.
We and other investigators have reported that bilirubin and its precursor biliverdin may have beneficial effects on diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy, via its antioxidant effects. Here, we investigated whether phycocyanin derived from Spirulina platensis, a blue-green algae, and its chromophore phycocyanobilin, which has a chemical structure similar to that of biliverdin, protect against oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in db/db mice, a rodent model for type 2 diabetes. Oral administration of phycocyanin (300 mg/kg) for 10 weeks protected against albuminuria and renal mesangial expansion in db/db mice, and normalized tumor growth factor-β and fibronectin expression. Phycocyanin also normalized urinary and renal oxidative stress markers and the expression of NAD(P)H oxidase components. Similar antioxidant effects were observed following oral administration of phycocyanobilin (15 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. Phycocyanobilin, bilirubin and biliverdin also inhibited NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production in cultured renal mesangial cells. In conclusion, oral administration of phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin may offer a novel and feasible therapeutic approach for preventing diabetic nephropathy.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physil 2012 Oct 31 [Epub ahead of print]
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